Mathematics

Download E-books Beyond Geometry: A New Mathematics of Space and Form (History of Mathematics (Facts on File)) PDF

By John Tabak

Past Geometry describes how set-theoretic topology constructed and why it now occupies a principal position in arithmetic. Describing axiomatic strategy in addition to supplying a definition of what a geometrical estate is, this new source examines how early analysts included geometric considering into their improvement of the calculus. It additionally seems to be on the a number of mathematicians who struggled to improve a brand new conceptual framework for arithmetic and examines one of many sub-disciplines of set-theoretic topology known as measurement idea.

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Mathematics

Download E-books Tensor Analysis With Applications in Mechanics PDF

By Leonid P. Lebedev, Michael J. Cloud

The tensorial nature of a volume allows us to formulate transformation ideas for its parts less than a transformation of foundation. those principles are particularly easy and simply grasped by way of any engineering pupil acquainted with matrix operators in linear algebra. extra advanced difficulties come up while one considers the tensor fields that describe continuum our bodies. consequently common curvilinear coordinates turn into precious. The critical foundation of a curvilinear process is built as a collection of vectors tangent to the coordinate traces. one other foundation, known as the twin foundation, is usually developed in a distinct demeanour. The life of those bases is answerable for the mysterious covariant and contravariant terminology encountered in tensor discussions.

A tensor box is a tensor-valued functionality of place in house. using tensor fields permits us to offer actual legislation in a transparent, compact shape. A byproduct is a collection of straightforward and transparent principles for the illustration of vector differential operators reminiscent of gradient, divergence, and Laplacian in curvilinear coordinate platforms.

This publication is a transparent, concise, and self-contained remedy of tensors, tensor fields, and their functions. The ebook comprises essentially the entire fabric on tensors wanted for purposes. It exhibits how this fabric is utilized in mechanics, overlaying the rules of the linear theories of elasticity and elastic shells.

the most effects are all offered within the first 4 chapters. the rest of the e-book exhibits how you can follow those effects to differential geometry and the examine of assorted kinds of gadgets in continuum mechanics akin to elastic our bodies, plates, and shells. every one bankruptcy of this re-creation is provided with routines and difficulties such a lot with options, tricks, or solutions to assist the reader growth. a longer appendix serves as a handbook-style precis of all vital formulation inside the book.

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Mathematics

Download E-books Functional Analysis, Sobolev Spaces and Partial Differential Equations (Universitext) PDF

This textbook is a very revised, up to date, and elevated English variation of the $64000 Analyse fonctionnelle (1983). additionally, it encompasses a wealth of difficulties and routines (with ideas) to lead the reader. Uniquely, this ebook offers in a coherent, concise and unified manner the most effects from sensible research together with the most effects from the idea of partial differential equations (PDEs). even if there are lots of books on useful research and plenty of on PDEs, this can be the 1st to hide either one of those heavily attached themes. because the French publication used to be first released, it's been translated into Spanish, Italian, jap, Korean, Romanian, Greek and chinese language. The English variation makes a great addition to this list.

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Mathematics

Download E-books Points and Lines: Characterizing the Classical Geometries (Universitext) PDF

The classical geometries of issues and features contain not just the projective and polar areas, yet comparable truncations of geometries certainly coming up from the teams of Lie style. almost all of those geometries (or homomorphic pictures of them) are characterised during this ebook by way of uncomplicated neighborhood axioms on issues and features. easy point-line characterizations of Lie occurrence geometries enable one to acknowledge Lie prevalence geometries and their automorphism teams. those instruments can be beneficial in shortening the tremendously long class of finite easy teams. equally, spotting governed manifolds by way of axioms on gentle trajectories bargains a fashion for a physicist to acknowledge the motion of a Lie workforce in a context the place it isn't transparent what Hamiltonians or Casimir operators are concerned. The presentation is self-contained within the experience that proofs continue step by step from effortless first principals with out extra attract outdoor effects. numerous chapters have new heretofore unpublished examine effects. nevertheless, sure teams of chapters could make strong graduate classes. All yet one bankruptcy supply workouts for both use in any such path, or to elicit new learn instructions.

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Mathematics

Download E-books Partial Differential Equations (Graduate Texts in Mathematics) PDF

By Jürgen Jost

This e-book bargains an excellent creation to the speculation of partial differential equations. It specializes in elliptic equations and systematically develops the proper life schemes, consistently with a view in the direction of nonlinear difficulties. It additionally develops the most equipment for acquiring estimates for suggestions of elliptic equations: Sobolev house idea, vulnerable and robust strategies, Schauder estimates, and Moser new release. It additionally explores connections among elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations in addition to the relationship with Brownian movement and semigroups. This moment variation incorporates a new bankruptcy on reaction-diffusion equations and platforms.

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Mathematics

Download E-books Trigonometric Delights PDF

By Eli Maor

Trigonometry has continuously been the black sheep of arithmetic. It has a name as a dry and tough topic, a glorified type of geometry advanced through tedious computation. during this e-book, Eli Maor attracts on his notable abilities as a advisor to the area of numbers to dispel that view. Rejecting the standard arid descriptions of sine, cosine, and their trigonometric family members, he brings the topic to lifestyles in a compelling combination of historical past, biography, and arithmetic. He provides either a survey of the most parts of trigonometry and a special account of its important contribution to technological know-how and social improvement. Woven jointly in a tapestry of exciting tales, medical curiosities, and academic insights, the publication greater than lives as much as the identify Trigonometric Delights.

Maor, whose past books have demystified the idea that of infinity and the bizarre quantity "e," starts off by way of interpreting the "proto-trigonometry" of the Egyptian pyramid developers. He exhibits how Greek astronomers constructed the 1st precise trigonometry. He lines the gradual emergence of recent, analytical trigonometry, recounting its colourful origins in Renaissance Europe's quest for extra actual artillery, extra designated clocks, and extra entertaining musical tools. alongside the way in which, we see trigonometry at paintings in, for instance, the fight of the recognized mapmaker Gerardus Mercator to symbolize the curved earth on a flat sheet of paper; we see how M. C. Escher used geometric progressions in his artwork; and we find out how the toy Spirograph makes use of epicycles and hypocycles.

Maor additionally sketches the lives of a few of the exciting figures who've formed 4 thousand years of trigonometric historical past. We meet, for example, the Renaissance student Regiomontanus, who's rumored to were poisoned for insulting a colleague, and Maria Agnesi, an eighteenth-century Italian genius who gave up arithmetic to paintings with the poor--but no longer sooner than she investigated a unique curve that, as a result of mistranslation, bears the unlucky identify "the witch of Agnesi." The ebook is richly illustrated, together with infrequent prints from the author's personal assortment. Trigonometric Delights will switch eternally our view of a as soon as dreaded subject.

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Mathematics

Download E-books Algebraic Topology: An Introduction (Graduate Texts in Mathematics) (v. 56) PDF

By William S. Massey

William S. Massey Professor Massey, born in Illinois in 1920, obtained his bachelor's measure from the collage of Chicago after which served for 4 years within the U.S. military in the course of international warfare II. After the struggle he got his Ph.D. from Princeton collage and spent extra years there as a post-doctoral study assistant. He then taught for ten years at the college of Brown college, and moved to his current place at Yale in 1960. he's the writer of diverse learn articles on algebraic topology and similar issues. This booklet constructed from lecture notes of classes taught to Yale undergraduate and graduate scholars over a interval of numerous years.

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Mathematics

Download E-books The Great Equations: Breakthroughs in Science from Pythagoras to Heisenberg PDF

By Robert P. Crease

“Any reader who aspires to be scientifically literate will locate this an outstanding beginning place.”―Publishers Weekly

whereas we might be acquainted with a few of science’s maximum equations, we won't understand that every and each equation emerged now not in “Eureka!” moments yet in years of cultural advancements and medical wisdom. With vignettes filled with humor, drama, and eccentricity, thinker and technological know-how historian Robert P. Crease stocks the tales at the back of ten of history’s maximum equations, from the “first equation,” 1 + 1 = 2, which can provide a rational, well-ordered international, to Heisenberg’s uncertainty precept, which finds the restrictions of human wisdom. for each equation, Crease offers a short account of who stumbled on it, what dissatisfactions lay in the back of its discovery, and what the equation says concerning the nature of our global. forty three illustrations

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Mathematics

Download E-books Themes from Wittgenstein and Quine (Grazer Philosophische Studien) PDF

The amount comprises new essays on Wittgenstein and on Quine.

Six essays talk about the most important facets of Wittgenstein’s philosophy of arithmetic: Wittgenstein’s ontological quietism relating to the realism vs. anti-realism debate, his thesis that mathematical propositions are ideas of grammar, his views at the nature of numbers, and on equinumerosity and surveyability, his therapy of mathematical formulation, and his disagreements with Brouwer over the countless and the legislations of excluded middle.

Six essays are devoted to the philosophy of Willard Van Orman Quine: they talk about Quine’s stance in the direction of the concept of which means in linguistics and philosophy, his thesis of the indeterminacy of radical translation, his naturalism in semantics, his model of nominalism, and his try and reconstruct attainable worlds inside an extensionalist framework.

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