By J. C. Van Loon

Written for the practising analyst, Analytical tools for Geochemical Exploration deals completely demonstrated chemical research equipment for settling on what base or worthwhile metals are in geochemical exploration samples, corresponding to rocks, soil, or sediment. concept is stored to a minimal and entire techniques are supplied in order that no extra resources are had to behavior analyses.

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F i g u r e 2 . 8 . S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m of a n I C P q u a n t o m e t e r . II. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry 37 B. INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS 1. Plasma Torch In emission s p e c t r o m e t r y , the p u r p o s e of the source is to provide sufficient energy to atomize samples and then to p r o d u c e excited-state a t o m s . W h e n the excited a t o m s return to their ground states, they emit their characteristic line spectra. Plasma t o r c h e s are capable of reaching very high t e m p e r a t u r e s (>8000 K).

Emission s p e c t r o m e t e r s are designed for either simultaneous or sequential determinations of e l e m e n t s . T h e main advantage of a simultaneous direct reading instrument is a high throughput of samples. This system is r e c o m m e n d e d when many elements must be m e a s u r e d in large n u m b e r s of samples as in routine laboratory operation. T h e main disadvantage of such an instrument is that a selection of lines must be m a d e at the time of p u r c h a s e so that the optical channels corresponding to each element can be set.

Matrix matching of samples and standards particularly with respect to total dissolved solids and acid concentration is r e c o m m e n d e d as a m e a n s of overcoming these interferences. Element-specific interferences originate in the plasma and involve chemical and atomization effects. Signals can be e n h a n c e d or d e p r e s s e d . Although solutions containing elements such as calcium and p h o s p h a t e , calcium and aluminum, and combinations of alkali metals have been studied by a n u m b e r of r e s e a r c h e r s , conflicting results have been r e p o r t e d .

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