By Jean-Michel Rendu
An creation to Cut-off Grade Estimation examines the most very important calculations within the mining undefined. Cut-off grades are necessary to opting for the industrial feasibility and mine lifetime of a undertaking. Profitability and socioeconomic impression of mining operations are encouraged through the alternative of cut-off grades. Cut-off grades play a key position in estimating mineral reserves that may be publicly reported.
This re-creation is less complicated to learn and of higher sensible curiosity to practitioners. the connection among optimization of web current worth, means constraints, and chance rate is defined in larger element. a brand new part discusses mixing thoughts, which play a severe function in progressively more mining operations.
Author Jean-Michel Rendu, an across the world famous professional within the administration, estimation, and public reporting of mineral assets, presents sensible insights. As a supervisor in significant mining businesses, a expert, and an educator, Rendu has got substantial event in all facets of mining engineering, adventure that used to be included into this publication.
This is a must-read for mine managers, analysts, geologists, mining engineers, and public policymakers who are looking to remain at the innovative in their profession.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Cut-Off Grade Estimation, Second Edition
Depending on the metallurgical properties of the ore, using a coarser grind will increase plant throughput while reducing cost per metric ton processed and decreasing recovery. Conversely, a finer grind can decrease plant capacity, increase processing cost, and increase recovery. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION The following notations are used in this chapter: r = processing plant recovery V = value of copper contained in concentrate, after deduction for smelter loss, and freight, smelting, and refining costs Po = cost per metric ton of ore processed, including overhead xc = cut-off grade T+c = tonnage above cut-off grade to be processed in one year Q+c = quantity of copper to be processed in one year x+c = average grade above cut-off grade Because mining operations are fixed, the utility function that must be optimized to estimate the economically optimal grind size is only a function of mill operations and can be written as follows: U ( T +c ) = Q +c ⋅ r ( T +c ) ⋅ V – T +c ⋅ P o ( T +c ) 43 © 2008 by the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration.
Sulfide material is likely to oxidize during stockpiling. If a sulfide flotation process is to be used, oxidation will result in lower recovery. Conversely, if an oxide leach process is to be applied to material that was not fully oxidized when mined, stockpiling may enhance recovery. There are obvious difficulties in using these formulae, the main one being that future costs and revenues are difficult or impossible to estimate with accuracy. Furthermore, because processing of stockpiled material is likely to occur late in the mine life, the net present value of future revenues is likely to be small compared with costs incurred at the time of mining and ongoing maintenance costs during the life of the stockpile.
344%Cu. 5 million metric tons. The higher-grade material could be sent to the mill and the lower-grade material could be stockpiled. But such an approach is likely to increase short-term costs without increasing revenues from concentrate sales. No advantage is taken of the higher copper price. Another option would consist of increasing mill throughput by increasing grind size. The result would be a decrease in operating cost per metric ton. However, this is expected to result in a decrease in mill recovery.