By Michel Grino, Nadia Dakine, Odile Paulmyer-Lacroix, Charles Oliver (auth.), Andrew N. Margioris MD, George P. Chrousos MD (eds.)

New and fascinating innovations within the fields of adrenal body structure and pathophysiology were rising nearly exponentially, generating a massive inflow of latest wisdom. In Adrenal issues, a panel of unique physicians and researchers-many energetic members to the discoveries-select the main appropriate new findings and combine them into the present physique of scientific wisdom on adrenal pathologies. The booklet contains vital reports of disturbances in cortisol homeostasis, and new thoughts relating to adrenal tumors and hereditary adrenal ailments. additionally mentioned are mineralocorticoids and the syndromes of mineralocortoid extra and aldosterone synthase deficiency. A targeted overview of the molecular and mobile biology of the adrenal cortices medullae, coupled with a dialogue of the secretion and metabolism of adrenal items, supply a legitimate physiological beginning for realizing the recent techniques to adrenal disease.
Authoritative and insightful, Adrenal problems offers physicians and scientists with a entire, cutting-edge functional consultant to the devastating ailments of the adrenals which are so usually tough to diagnose and treat.

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Whereas, recombinant human activin-A promotes granulosa cell proliferation, it inhibits fetal zone cell proliferation (36,37). Activin also increases the ACTH-stimulated production of cortisol by the fetal zone cells, however, it has no effect on DHEA-S production by these cells. In contrast, activin had no effect on growth or steroidogenesis in definitive or adult adrenal cortical cells. Interestingly, recombinant human inhibin had no effect on either the growth or function of these cells. A recent study by Spencer et al.

In contrast, the expression of ERa was very low in the fetal spleen and absent in the fetal adrenal. Recent transfection studies show not only that these two subtypes of estrogen receptor signal differently, based on the ligand and the response element, but also that they may have different roles in gene regulation (248,249). These ERs, primarily nuclear proteins, bind to their recognition sites either as homodimers or as ERa and ER~ heterodimers (137,138,250). Studies have shown that ERa can bind to its palindromic DNA recognition sequence both in the presence and in the absence of its ligand, estrogen (139,251).

Given its role in GC cell differentiation and its increased expression in the adrenal nodules, as seen in our in situ hybridization studies, it is conceivable that SF-1 may also govern the fetal adrenal cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the adult testis, hSF-l expression was seen in both the interstitial cells and the inner border of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting expression in the steroidogenic Leydig cells and the germinal epithelium. Our results suggest that in the human testis, in addition to steroidogenesis, hSF-l may also have a role in the function of spermatogenesis.

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