By Wolfgang Krüger, Andrew Ludman

This e-book brings jointly insights and proof in regards to the pathophysiology, analysis, and treatment of varied acute middle failure syndromes. It additionally acts as a consultant for an evidence-based method of diagnose and deal with the .

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Additional info for Acute Heart Failure: Putting the Puzzle of Pathophysiology and Evidence Together in Daily Practice

Example text

Pinsky [119] and Reinhart [333] state that a decrease in SvO2 to < 70% represents increased oxygen extraction by the tissues [119, 333] suggestive of hypoperfusion [334]. A persistent SvO2 < 30% is associated with severe tissue ischaemia [335]. Plasma lactate levels, although non-specific, are still a reasonable surrogate for inadequate 22 1 Cardiac physiology of acute heart failure syndromes tissue perfusion [336–338]. A reduction of an initially elevated value signals improvement of perfusion [339].

The ESC Task Force Group has classified acute heart failure into six distinct pictures. This is based on the clinical conditions at presentation and the haemodynamic characteristics described by Forrester [3], Killipp [4] and more recently by Cotter [5], along with a report and explanation by Adams [6]: • ESC- 1: Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (AD-HF) De novo or decompensated chronic HF. Signs and symptoms of acute HF are generally mild and do not fulfil criteria for cardiogenic shock (CS), pulmonary oedema or hypertensive crisis (HTN).

Pinsky [119] and Reinhart [333] state that a decrease in SvO2 to < 70% represents increased oxygen extraction by the tissues [119, 333] suggestive of hypoperfusion [334]. A persistent SvO2 < 30% is associated with severe tissue ischaemia [335]. Plasma lactate levels, although non-specific, are still a reasonable surrogate for inadequate 22 1 Cardiac physiology of acute heart failure syndromes tissue perfusion [336–338]. A reduction of an initially elevated value signals improvement of perfusion [339].

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