By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This useful guide brings jointly a variety of bibliographic details on irregular pressures and provides the sensible event of the authors and diverse specialists inside Elf-Aquitaine. essentially destined for everyday use by means of subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anyplace they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes a number of the origins of strain anomalies, and info the tools on hand for his or her prediction, detection and evaluate. it's going to even be necessary to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference guide.
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Additional resources for Abnormal Pressures While Drilling: Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation (Fundamentals of Exploration and Production)
27). The cracking process creates hydrocarbons from organic matter and also produces light hydrocarbons from heavy ones. The transformation increases the total number of molecules, and therefore the volume they occupy. If this takes place in an “open” environment, no increase in pressure occurs. If on the other hand it occurs in a “closed” or “semi-closed” environment, it can cause pressure to rise. This will depend on the degree to which the environment is confined and the final nature of the hydrocarbon product.
44 - Illustration of the osmotic process. permeable membrane. Its effectiveness in this respect was patchy however, to such an extent that an increased content of very fine quartz in the clay was enough to cause a noticeable reduction in efficiency. Olsen has demonstrated that the flow of water through a clay bed is dependent on the following four main factors : - differential pressure, - differential concentration, - differential electrical potential, - tem perature. We should also add to these factors the thickness of the clay, the size of the micropores and the degree of fissuring.
Above all it is important not to confuse stresses (compressive, tensile or shear) with the deformations (contraction, extension or distortion) which they create. The former are expressed in megapascals, the latter as a percentage or “per thousand”, indicating how much change of length or form has taken place. Porous bodies Until now we have been considering compact bodies. If however they are porous, they can contain a fluid which has a pressure different from the stresses affecting the solid matrix.