By Walter H. Fertl
Petroleum formation pressures
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Extra resources for Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources
The physical properties and differences in physical properties of the sandstone and shale sequence, predominantly shale section, and salt of these saltcdome structures are partly responsible for the geometry of the structures. Structural details and features which were studied in an effort to understand the history of the salt structures were the ‘sheath’ configuration, indications of uplift and differential subsidence, development of rim synclines, and faulting and fault patterns. Most of the flanking sedimentary rocks were either deposited against the core of the structure or ‘pierced’ by the core shortly after deposition.
Disequilibrium between the solid and dispersed phases can be increased, even though the free energy of the system is lowered by migration in the dispersed phase. When the solid phases are allowed to change composition (for example, by stress-induced recrystallization), there may be damping effect on diffusion, but there also may be an 40 ABNORMAL FORMATION PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS enhancement of diffusion. Eventually a compositional gradient will parallel the pressure gradient in both the solid and dispersed phases.
As a rule, no major gas deposits were present at the source of the volcanoes. Instead, there were small gas accumulations characterized by rock pressures that were much higher than normal and a constant gas inflow from the deeper parts of the basins. In such cases, potential gas reserves should also include the migrating gas. As suggested by Kalinko (1967),it is economical to exploit such gas pools using one or two wells. Salt diapirism. Salt is known to behave plastically. During short-time tests at elevated temperatures, halite single crystals (Handin and Hager, 1958) flowed without further stress increase when the yield stress was reached.