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The most common ones are shown in Fig. 3. Reaction chambers can be broadly classified into horizontal and vertical reactors. These designs have also been the focus of most modeling efforts. Each of these could be a hot-walled or a cold-walled reactor. In coldwalled reactors the steep thermal gradients over the heated CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION substrate can lead to the formation of complex buoyancydriven recirculation flows. Several design modifications have been devised to reduce or eliminate these undesirable return flows, such as low pressure and high linear gas velocities within the reactor.

51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 31 Fault Detection in Reactive Ion Etching. IEEE Trans. Industrial Electron. 2005, 52, pp 1063–1072. ; Ryssel, H. Phi-scatterometry for Integrated Linewidth and Process Control in DRAM Manufacturing. IEEE Trans. Semiconductor Manufactur. 2002, 15, pp 470–477. ; Pelagagge, P. M. Use of Neural Networks in Modeling Relations Between Exposure Energy and Pattern Dimension in Photolithography Process [MOS ICs]. IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, Manufactur. Technol. C 1996, 19, pp 290–299.

Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Neural Networks; 1988. 13. Rietman, E. ; Frye, R. C. A Genetic Algorithm for Low Variance Control in Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Some Early Results. IEEE Trans. Semiconductor Manufactur. 1996, 9, pp 223–229. 14. Holland, J. , Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, MI, 1975. 15. Goldberg, D. Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. Addison Wesley: Reading, MA, 1989. 16. May, G. S. Intelligent SOP manufacturing.

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