By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

This reference covers the gear and platforms for purposes except human convenience, together with info on cooling, freezing, and storing meals; commercial functions of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration. basically for the working towards engineer, this quantity is additionally invaluable for an individual interested by cooling and garage of nutrients items. An accompanying CD-ROM comprises the entire volume's chapters in either I-P and SI devices. The variation comprises new chapters. bankruptcy three, Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration structures, describes the historical past of this ''natural refrigerant'' and why it's the topic of renewed curiosity this day. bankruptcy 50, Terminology of Refrigeration, lists a few of the universal phrases utilized in commercial refrigeration structures. additionally new for this quantity, bankruptcy order and groupings were revised for extra logical stream and use.

ASHRAE, based in 1894, is a world association of a few 50,000 people. ASHRAE fulfills its venture of advancing heating, air flow, air-con, and refrigeration to serve humanity and advertise a sustainable global via examine, criteria writing, publishing, and carrying on with schooling.

The ASHRAE Handbooks are the layout general for keep watch over of equipped environments with volumes on platforms and kit, HVAC purposes, Refrigeration and basics. each one is up-to-date each 4 years. as well as publishing layout information for engineers, architects, and facility managers, we additionally put up a sequence of texts for lecture room use.

many of the components we submit in include:
-Energy Modeling and Auditing
-High functionality construction Design
-Psychrometrics
-Indoor Air caliber and Environmental Quality
-Data middle power Efficiency
-Noise & Vibration Control
-Humidity Control
-HVAC for Healthcare Facilities

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Extra resources for 2010 Ashrae Handbook: Refrigeration, I-P Edition

Example text

Pipe Sizing For the same pressure drop, CO2 has a corresponding temperature penalty 5 to 10 times smaller than ammonia and R-134a have LIVE GRAPH Fig. 8 Water Solubility in CO2 Click here to view Fig. 10 Water Solubility in CO2 (Adapted from Vestergaard 2007) (Figure 11). For a large system with an inherently large pressure drop, the temperature penalty with CO2 is substantially less than the same pressure drop using another refrigerant. Because of CO2’s physical properties (particularly density), the vapor side of the system is much smaller than in a typical ammonia system, but the liquid side is similar or even larger because CO2’s lower latent heat requires more mass flow (see Table 3).

An actuated ball valve) may be installed in parallel with the safety relief valve to allow controlled venting of the vapor at a set pressure slightly lower than the relief valve setting. For sizing relief valves, use the following equation: C = f DL (1) CO2, like HFCs, is very sensitive to any moisture within the system. Air must be evacuated before charging the refrigerant at initial start-up, to remove atmospheric moisture. Maintenance staff must use caution when adding oil that may contain moisture.

2 ½ in. 45 1 in. 4 in. Fig. 9 liquid and allowing the dry gas to exit to the compressors. The high gas density of CO2 means that liquid takes up a greater proportion of the wet suction volume than with ammonia, so there is a significant advantage in reducing the circulating rate. Typically 2:1 can be used for a cold store, whereas 4:1 would be preferred in this application for ammonia. Design of a recirculator vessel must consider liquid flow rates. 33 ft/s to allow vapor bubbles to rise and to prevent oil entrainment in the pump suction line.

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